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Le football

le football

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Misconduct may occur at any time, and while the offences that constitute misconduct are listed, the definitions are broad. In particular, the offence of "unsporting behaviour" may be used to deal with most events that violate the spirit of the game, even if they are not listed as specific offences.

A referee can show a yellow or red card to a player, substitute or substituted player. Non-players such as managers and support staff cannot be shown the yellow or red card, but may be expelled from the technical area if they fail to conduct themselves in a responsible manner.

Rather than stopping play, the referee may allow play to continue if doing so will benefit the team against which an offence has been committed.

This is known as "playing an advantage". Even if an offence is not penalised due to advantage being played, the offender may still be sanctioned for misconduct at the next stoppage of play.

Most competitions enforce mandatory suspensions for players who are sent off in a game. Sanctions for such infractions may be levied on individuals or on to clubs as a whole.

Penalties may include fines, points deductions in league competitions or even expulsion from competitions. For example, the English Football League deduct 12 points from any team that enters financial administration.

Teams that had forfeited a game or had been forfeited against would be awarded a technical loss or win. The recognised international governing body of football and associated games, such as futsal and beach soccer is FIFA.

Six regional confederations are associated with FIFA; these are: National associations oversee football within individual countries. These are generally synonymous with sovereign states, for example: International competitions in association football principally consist of two varieties: International football , without qualification, most often refers to the former.

In the case of international club competition, it is the country of origin of the clubs involved, not the nationalities of their players, that renders the competition international in nature.

This competition takes place every four years since with the exception of and tournaments, which were cancelled due to World War II. Approximately — national teams compete in qualifying tournaments within the scope of continental confederations for a place in the finals.

The finals tournament, which is held every four years, involves 32 national teams competing over a four-week period.

There has been a football tournament at every Summer Olympic Games since , except at the games in Los Angeles. Originally, the tournament was for amateurs only.

The countries that benefited most were the Soviet Bloc countries of Eastern Europe , where top athletes were state-sponsored while retaining their status as amateurs.

Between and , 23 out of 27 Olympic medals were won by Eastern Europe, with only Sweden gold in and bronze in , Denmark bronze in and silver in and Japan bronze in breaking their dominance.

Since male competitors must be under 23 years old, and since , players under 23 years old, with three over year old players, are allowed per squad.

After the World Cup, the most important international football competitions are the continental championships, which are organised by each continental confederation and contested between national teams.

The most prestigious competitions in club football are the respective continental championships, which are generally contested between national champions, for example the UEFA Champions League in Europe and the Copa Libertadores in South America.

The governing bodies in each country operate league systems in a domestic season , normally comprising several divisions , in which the teams gain points throughout the season depending on results.

Teams are placed into tables , placing them in order according to points accrued. Most commonly, each team plays every other team in its league at home and away in each season, in a round-robin tournament.

At the end of a season, the top team is declared the champion. The top few teams may be promoted to a higher division, and one or more of the teams finishing at the bottom are relegated to a lower division.

The main exceptions to this system occur in some Latin American leagues, which divide football championships into two sections named Apertura and Clausura Spanish for Opening and Closing , awarding a champion for each.

Football hooliganism is the term used to describe disorderly, violent or destructive behaviour perpetrated by spectators at football events.

Variants of football have been codified for reduced-sized teams i. Such games can have team sizes that vary from eleven-a-side, can use a limited or modified subset of the official rules, and can be self-officiated by the players.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Soccer disambiguation. This article is about the sport of association football.

For other codes of football, see Football. The attacking player No. Names for association football. History of association football.

Children playing cuju in Song dynasty China. An episkyros player on an ancient stone carving at the National Archaeological Museum, Athens.

For the rules of other football games, see Football. Laws of the Game association football. Association football positions , Formation association football , and Kit association football.

Ball in and out of play. Players are cautioned with a yellow card, and dismissed from the game with a red card. Association football around the world.

List of association football competitions. Professionalism in association football. Variants of association football and Street football.

The most recent changed was in , from 24 to Retrieved 11 July Retrieved 29 April Archived from the original on 12 June Retrieved 4 June A Comparative and Developmental Approach.

Sociological Studies of Sport, Violence and Civilisation. It has been estimated that there were 22 million soccer players in the world in the early s, and that number is increasing.

Archived from the original on 14 March Retrieved 6 January Retrieved 29 October The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 20 June Retrieved 17 September Kennell, The Gymnasium of Virtue: Retrieved 19 June Retrieved 15 December Archived from the original on 1 July Retrieved 20 November Football, the first hundred years.

Retrieved 7 October Retrieved 9 October Archived from the original on 1 May Retrieved 4 March Soccer around the World: Retrieved 10 December Archived from the original on 22 April Retrieved 2 September Archived from the original on 8 June Retrieved 8 June Retrieved 5 June Archived from the original on 22 September Retrieved 17 March Archived from the original PDF on 15 September Retrieved 15 September Retrieved 11 October Common Ground News Service.

Archived from the original on 26 June Retrieved 2 March Archived from the original on 28 February Archived from the original on 29 October Retrieved 24 September Retrieved 21 May Archived from the original on 21 May Retrieved 22 May The young aristocrats of the city would dress up in fine silk costumes and embroil themselves in a violent form of football.

For example, calcio players could punch, shoulder charge, and kick opponents. Blows below the belt were allowed. The game is said to have originated as a military training exercise.

This is sometimes said to be the earliest code of rules for any football game. The game was not played after January until it was revived in May There have been many attempts to ban football, from the middle ages through to the modern day.

The first such law was passed in England in ; it was followed by more than 30 in England alone between and Female footballers still face similar problems in some parts of the world.

While football continued to be played in various forms throughout Britain, its public schools equivalent to private schools in other countries are widely credited with four key achievements in the creation of modern football codes.

First of all, the evidence suggests that they were important in taking football away from its "mob" form and turning it into an organised team sport.

Second, many early descriptions of football and references to it were recorded by people who had studied at these schools. Third, it was teachers, students and former students from these schools who first codified football games, to enable matches to be played between schools.

Finally, it was at English public schools that the division between "kicking" and "running" or "carrying" games first became clear. The earliest evidence that games resembling football were being played at English public schools — mainly attended by boys from the upper, upper-middle and professional classes — comes from the Vulgaria by William Herman in Herman had been headmaster at Eton and Winchester colleges and his Latin textbook includes a translation exercise with the phrase "We wyll playe with a ball full of wynde".

Richard Mulcaster , a student at Eton College in the early 16th century and later headmaster at other English schools, has been described as "the greatest sixteenth Century advocate of football".

In , David Wedderburn , a teacher from Aberdeen , mentioned elements of modern football games in a short Latin textbook called Vocabula. Wedderburn refers to what has been translated into modern English as "keeping goal" and makes an allusion to passing the ball "strike it here".

There is a reference to "get hold of the ball", suggesting that some handling was allowed. It is clear that the tackles allowed included the charging and holding of opposing players "drive that man back".

The gates are called Goals. He is the first to describe a "law" of football: English public schools were the first to codify football games.

In particular, they devised the first offside rules, during the late 18th century. Players were not allowed to pass the ball forward, either by foot or by hand.

They could only dribble with their feet, or advance the ball in a scrum or similar formation. However, offside laws began to diverge and develop differently at each school, as is shown by the rules of football from Winchester, Rugby , Harrow and Cheltenham , during between and During the early 19th century, most working class people in Britain had to work six days a week, often for over twelve hours a day.

They had neither the time nor the inclination to engage in sport for recreation and, at the time, many children were part of the labour force. Feast day football played on the streets was in decline.

Public school boys, who enjoyed some freedom from work, became the inventors of organised football games with formal codes of rules. Football was adopted by a number of public schools as a way of encouraging competitiveness and keeping youths fit.

Each school drafted its own rules, which varied widely between different schools and were changed over time with each new intake of pupils.

Two schools of thought developed regarding rules. Some schools favoured a game in which the ball could be carried as at Rugby, Marlborough and Cheltenham , while others preferred a game where kicking and dribbling the ball was promoted as at Eton, Harrow, Westminster and Charterhouse.

The division into these two camps was partly the result of circumstances in which the games were played. For example, Charterhouse and Westminster at the time had restricted playing areas; the boys were confined to playing their ball game within the school cloisters , making it difficult for them to adopt rough and tumble running games.

William Webb Ellis , a pupil at Rugby School, is said to have "with a fine disregard for the rules of football, as played in his time [emphasis added], first took the ball in his arms and ran with it, thus creating the distinctive feature of the rugby game.

This act is usually said to be the beginning of Rugby football, but there is little evidence that it occurred, and most sports historians believe the story to be apocryphal.

The boom in rail transport in Britain during the s meant that people were able to travel further and with less inconvenience than they ever had before.

Inter-school sporting competitions became possible. However, it was difficult for schools to play each other at football, as each school played by its own rules.

The solution to this problem was usually that the match be divided into two halves, one half played by the rules of the host "home" school, and the other half by the visiting "away" school.

The modern rules of many football codes were formulated during the mid- or late- 19th century. This also applies to other sports such as lawn bowls, lawn tennis, etc.

This allowed for the preparation of modern ovals, playing fields, pitches, grass courts, etc. However, many of them are still played at the schools which created them see Surviving UK school games below.

Before , many British children had to work six days a week, for more than twelve hours a day. These changes meant that working class children had more time for games, including various forms of football.

In , three boys at Rugby school were tasked with codifying the rules then being used at the school. These were the first set of written rules or code for any form of football.

One of the longest running football fixture is the Cordner-Eggleston Cup , contested between Melbourne Grammar School and Scotch College, Melbourne every year since It is believed by many to also be the first match of Australian rules football , although it was played under experimental rules in its first year.

The South Australian Football Association 30 April is the oldest surviving Australian rules football competition. The oldest surviving soccer trophy is the Youdan Cup and the oldest national football competition is the English FA Cup The Football League is recognised as the longest running Association Football league.

The first ever international football match took place between sides representing England and Scotland on March 5, at the Oval under the authority of the FA.

The first Rugby international took place in Later leather coverings were introduced to allow the balls to keep their shape. In , the U.

The ball was to prove popular in early forms of football in the U. The iconic ball with a regular pattern of hexagons and pentagons see truncated icosahedron did not become popular until the s, and was first used in the World Cup in The earliest reference to a game of football involving players passing the ball and attempting to score past a goalkeeper was written in by David Wedderburn, a poet and teacher in Aberdeen , Scotland.

Creswell, who having brought the ball up the side then kicked it into the middle to another of his side, who kicked it through the posts the minute before time was called" [73] Passing was a regular feature of their style [74] By early the Engineers were the first football team renowned for "play[ing] beautifully together" [75] A double pass is first reported from Derby school against Nottingham Forest in March , the first of which is irrefutably a short pass: In , at Cambridge University , Mr.

Thring , who were both formerly at Shrewsbury School , called a meeting at Trinity College, Cambridge , with 12 other representatives from Eton, Harrow, Rugby, Winchester and Shrewsbury.

An eight-hour meeting produced what amounted to the first set of modern rules, known as the Cambridge rules. No copy of these rules now exists, but a revised version from circa is held in the library of Shrewsbury School.

The Cambridge rules were not widely adopted outside English public schools and universities but it was arguably the most significant influence on the Football Association committee members responsible for formulating the rules of Association football.

By the late s, many football clubs had been formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various codes of football. The code was largely independent of the public school rules, the most significant difference being the lack of an offside rule.

The code was responsible for many innovations that later spread to association football. These included free kicks , corner kicks , handball, throw-ins and the crossbar.

At this time a series of rule changes by both the London and Sheffield FAs gradually eroded the differences between the two games until the adoption of a common code in There is archival evidence of "foot-ball" games being played in various parts of Australia throughout the first half of the 19th century.

The origins of an organised game of football known today as Australian rules football can be traced back to in Melbourne , the capital city of Victoria.

Through publicity and personal contacts Wills was able to co-ordinate football matches in Melbourne that experimented with various rules, [86] the first of which was played on July 31, Following these matches, organised football in Melbourne rapidly increased in popularity.

Wills and others involved in these early matches formed the Melbourne Football Club the oldest surviving Australian football club on May 14, Club members Wills, William Hammersley , J.

Thompson and Thomas H. Smith met with the intention of forming a set of rules that would be widely adopted by other clubs.

The committee debated rules used in English public school games; Wills pushed for various rugby football rules he learnt during his schooling.

The first rules share similarities with these games, and were shaped to suit to Australian conditions. Harrison , a seminal figure in Australian football, recalled that his cousin Wills wanted "a game of our own".

The Melbourne football rules were widely distributed and gradually adopted by the other Victorian clubs. The rules were updated several times during the s to accommodate the rules of other influential Victorian football clubs.

A significant redraft in by H. It soon adopted cricket fields and an oval ball, used specialised goal and behind posts, and featured bouncing the ball while running and spectacular high marking.

The game spread quickly to other Australian colonies. Outside its heartland in southern Australia, the code experienced a significant period of decline following World War I but has since grown throughout Australia and in other parts of the world , and the Australian Football League emerged as the dominant professional competition.

During the early s, there were increasing attempts in England to unify and reconcile the various public school games. Thring, who had been one of the driving forces behind the original Cambridge Rules, was a master at Uppingham School and he issued his own rules of what he called "The Simplest Game" these are also known as the Uppingham Rules.

In early October another new revised version of the Cambridge Rules was drawn up by a seven member committee representing former pupils from Harrow, Shrewsbury, Eton, Rugby, Marlborough and Westminster.

The aim of the Association was to establish a single unifying code and regulate the playing of the game among its members. Following the first meeting, the public schools were invited to join the association.

All of them declined, except Charterhouse and Uppingham. In total, six meetings of the FA were held between October and December After the third meeting, a draft set of rules were published.

However, at the beginning of the fourth meeting, attention was drawn to the recently published Cambridge Rules of The Cambridge rules differed from the draft FA rules in two significant areas; namely running with carrying the ball and hacking kicking opposing players in the shins.

The two contentious FA rules were as follows:. At the fifth meeting it was proposed that these two rules be removed. Most of the delegates supported this, but F.

Campbell , the representative from Blackheath and the first FA treasurer, objected. However, the motion to ban running with the ball in hand and hacking was carried and Blackheath withdrew from the FA.

After the final meeting on 8 December, the FA published the " Laws of Football ", the first comprehensive set of rules for the game later known as Association Football.

The term "soccer", in use since the late 19th century, derives from an Oxford University abbreviation of "Association".

The first FA rules still contained elements that are no longer part of association football, but which are still recognisable in other games such as Australian football and rugby football: In Britain , by , there were about 75 clubs playing variations of the Rugby school game.

However, there was no generally accepted set of rules for rugby until , when 21 clubs from London came together to form the Rugby Football Union RFU.

The first official RFU rules were adopted in June These rules allowed passing the ball. They also included the try , where touching the ball over the line allowed an attempt at goal, though drop-goals from marks and general play, and penalty conversions were still the main form of contest.

As was the case in Britain, by the early 19th century, North American schools and universities played their own local games, between sides made up of students.

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Viele Dinge, die heute selbstverständlich sind, waren damals noch gar nicht erfunden. Football , trinken Bier Zwölf kuriose Fakten über den Superstar ran. Wir schauen einfach nur Football , trinken Bier Und zahlreiche interessante Facts zu den Begegnungen. German das der die. Rams und Patriots zittern vor "Drake-Fluch" ran. Das Playcalling soll wohl auch ein anderer übernehmen. Nicht umsonst ist der Rookie für den Pro Bowl nominiert. Mais je n'aime pas le football. The top few teams may be promoted to a higher division, and one or more of the teams finishing at the bottom are relegated to a lower division. The young aristocrats of the city would dress up in fine silk costumes and embroil themselves in a casino law france form of football. Football hooliganism is the term used to describe disorderly, violent or destructive behaviour perpetrated by spectators at football events. Retrieved 1 December As was the case in Britain, by the early 19th century, North Casino planet schools and universities played their own local games, between bayern münchen transfergerüchte made up of students. The most recent changed was infrom 24 to If a england fussball live has been dismissed, no substitute can be brought on in their place and the player le football not participate in koziello play. A Comparative and Developmental Approach. When the ball becomes out of play, play is restarted by one of eight restart methods depending on how it went out of play:. The Football League is recognised as the longest running Association Football league. During the second half of the 20th century, the rules changed further. Sports in the Western World. Casino mit sofortüberweisung snubs Spurs in favour of Liverpool move. Retrieved 19 February The Dick, Kerr Ladies — These are generally synonymous with sovereign states, for example: Rutgers Through The Years. Players are cautioned bingo jetzt spielen a yellow card, and dismissed from the game with a red card. There is no conclusive evidence for either explanation. Most often, the word "football" is used to refer to the code of football that is considered dominant within a particular region. Retrieved 2 March Sociological Studies of Sport, Violence and Civilisation. It fell to associations from seven other European countries: Archived revanchieren englisch the original on 22 September By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Soccer around the World: The referee is assisted by two assistant referees.

The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 20 June Retrieved 17 September Kennell, The Gymnasium of Virtue: Retrieved 19 June Retrieved 15 December Archived from the original on 1 July Retrieved 20 November Football, the first hundred years.

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Retrieved 26 April Archived from the original on 4 September Retrieved 3 July Archived from the original on 10 October Archived from the original PDF on 21 July Scrapping minute half to be debated at Ifab".

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Laws of the Game rules of association football. The Field of Play Law 2: The Ball Law 3: The Number of Players Law 4: The Referee Law 6: The Other Match Officials Law 7: The Duration of the Match Law 8: The Start and Restart of Play Law 9: Determining the Outcome of a Match Law Fouls and Misconduct Law Free kicks direct and indirect Law The Penalty Kick Law The Throw-In Law The Goal Kick Law Football and rugby union Football and futsal.

Fanaticism in association football. In , the Ontario Rugby Football Union adopted the Burnside rules , which implemented the line of scrimmage and down-and-distance system from American football, among others.

In the midth century, various traditional football games, referred to collectively as caid , remained popular in Ireland, especially in County Kerry.

One observer, Father W. Ferris, described two main forms of caid during this period: By the s, Rugby and Association football had started to become popular in Ireland.

Trinity College, Dublin was an early stronghold of Rugby see the Developments in the s section, above. The rules of the English FA were being distributed widely.

Traditional forms of caid had begun to give way to a "rough-and-tumble game" which allowed tripping. There was no serious attempt to unify and codify Irish varieties of football, until the establishment of the Gaelic Athletic Association GAA in The GAA sought to promote traditional Irish sports, such as hurling and to reject imported games like Rugby and Association football.

The first Gaelic football rules were drawn up by Maurice Davin and published in the United Ireland magazine on February 7, The prime example of this differentiation was the lack of an offside rule an attribute which, for many years, was shared only by other Irish games like hurling, and by Australian rules football.

Professionalism had already begun to creep into the various codes of football. In England, by the s, a long-standing Rugby Football Union ban on professional players was causing regional tensions within rugby football, as many players in northern England were working class and could not afford to take time off to train, travel, play and recover from injuries.

This was not very different from what had occurred ten years earlier in soccer in Northern England but the authorities reacted very differently in the RFU, attempting to alienate the working class support in Northern England.

In , following a dispute about a player being paid broken time payments, which replaced wages lost as a result of playing rugby, representatives of the northern clubs met in Huddersfield to form the Northern Rugby Football Union NRFU.

The new body initially permitted only various types of player wage replacements. However, within two years, NRFU players could be paid, but they were required to have a job outside sport.

The demands of a professional league dictated that rugby had to become a better "spectator" sport. This was followed by the replacement of the ruck with the "play-the-ball ruck", which allowed a two-player ruck contest between the tackler at marker and the player tackled.

Mauls were stopped once the ball carrier was held, being replaced by a play-the ball-ruck. Over time, the RFU form of rugby, played by clubs which remained members of national federations affiliated to the IRFB, became known as rugby union.

The need for a single body to oversee association football had become apparent by the beginning of the 20th century, with the increasing popularity of international fixtures.

The English Football Association had chaired many discussions on setting up an international body, but was perceived as making no progress.

It fell to associations from seven other European countries: The French name and acronym has remained, even outside French-speaking countries.

Rugby league rules diverged significantly from rugby union in , with the reduction of the team from 15 to 13 players. In , a New Zealand professional rugby team toured Australia and Britain, receiving an enthusiastic response, and professional rugby leagues were launched in Australia the following year.

However, the rules of professional games varied from one country to another, and negotiations between various national bodies were required to fix the exact rules for each international match.

During the second half of the 20th century, the rules changed further. In , rugby league officials borrowed the American football concept of downs: The maximum number of tackles was later increased to six in , and in rugby league this became known as the six tackle rule.

The laws of rugby union also changed during the 20th century, although less significantly than those of rugby league. In particular, goals from marks were abolished, kicks directly into touch from outside the 22 metre line were penalised, new laws were put in place to determine who had possession following an inconclusive ruck or maul , and the lifting of players in line-outs was legalised.

In , rugby union became an "open" game, that is one which allowed professional players. The word football , when used in reference to a specific game can mean any one of those described above.

Because of this, much friendly controversy has occurred over the term football , primarily because it is used in different ways in different parts of the English-speaking world.

Most often, the word "football" is used to refer to the code of football that is considered dominant within a particular region.

So, effectively, what the word "football" means usually depends on where one says it. In each of the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada, one football code is known solely as "football", while the others generally require a qualifier.

In New Zealand, "football" historically referred to rugby union , but more recently may be used unqualified to refer to association football.

The sport meant by the word "football" in Australia is either Australian rules football or rugby league , depending on local popularity which largely conforms to the Barassi Line.

Several of the football codes are the most popular team sports in the world. These codes have in common the prohibition of the use of hands by all players except the goalkeeper , unlike other codes where carrying or handling the ball is allowed.

These codes have in common the ability of players to carry the ball with their hands, and to throw it to teammates, unlike association football where the use of hands is prohibited by anyone except the goal keeper.

They also feature various methods of scoring based upon whether the ball is carried into the goal area, or kicked through a target.

These codes have in common the absence of an offside rule, the prohibition of continuous carrying of the ball requiring a periodic bounce or solo toe-kick , depending on the code while running, handpassing by punching or tapping the ball rather than throwing it, and other traditions.

Games still played at UK public independent schools:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Group of related team sports.

This article is about the overall concept of games called football. For the balls themselves, see Football ball. For specific versions of the game and other uses of the term, see Football disambiguation.

Attempts to ban football games. English public school football games. Origins of Australian rules football. The first football international, Scotland versus England.

Once kept by the Rugby Football Union as an early example of rugby football. History of rugby union. History of Gaelic football. History of rugby league.

Variants of association football. Comparison of American football and rugby league , Comparison of American football and rugby union , Comparison of Canadian and American football , and Comparison of rugby league and rugby union.

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Rutgers Through The Years. The Professional Football Researchers Association. Archived from the original on 13 December Retrieved 1 December American Football —" PDF.

Tickets for Spanish League Buy Tickets. Qatar stun Japan to win first Asian Cup. January transfer spending fell for first time since Batshuayi returns as Crystal Palace snap up Chelsea striker on loan.

Deadline Day - Re-live the last day of the transfer window as it happened. Robertson makes sparkling century. Yuan Sijun pots winning black, but should referee have called a foul?

Dortmund sign free-scoring substitute Alcacer permanently from Barcelona. Guardiola shrugs off Walker tweet, Klopp unimpressed.

3 Responses

  1. Brazahn says:

    Ganz richtig! Die Idee ausgezeichnet, ist mit Ihnen einverstanden.

  2. Doura says:

    Sie soll sagen, dass Sie nicht recht sind.

  3. Mooguzil says:

    Was Wort ist bedeutet?

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